Hospitality Industry

History & Origin of Hotel Industry

Hotel can be defined as a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelter provided he/she is in a position to pay for it and is in the fit condition to be received (According to British Act 1931.)

So, from the definition we can say that the hotel is responsible to provide food and beverage and lodging to the travelers who are willing to pay for themselves. In other words it can be said that the hotel has right to refuse any traveler if he is drunk, disorderly or not in a position to pay for the services rendered.

It is said that the hotel industry is one of the oldest commercial ventures in the world. If we go back to the 6th century B.C. when people felt the urge to travel after the invention of wheel; the earliest inn was started by a husband and wife team who provided large halls for the traveler to make their own bed and sleep on the floor. They also provided modest food and thrust quenchers like wine. The entire cooking and the other services and recreations were provided by the husband and wife team and their family. For several hundred years this condition prevails. After the industrial revolution in England, the in keeping business came into the picture more prominently. The development of steam ships and railway made traveling much easier. The industrial development also changed traveling from social or governmental traveling to business traveling. So, this made it necessary to make the services quick and hygienic.

The nations of Europe had taken the lead in hotel keeping especially in Switzerland. In the olden days in England, the name “Inn” reserved for the first establishment and “Taverns” for less sophisticated establishments. In France, similarly the name “Hôtellerie” was given to the final establishment and “Caberet” for less pretentious establishment. The word “hostel” was used after the Norman invasion derived from “Host”. After a passage for over 80 years, the term “Hotel” came into existence in England in the year of 1760. In America, lodging houses were called an “Inn” or “Coffee House”. The real growth of modern hotel industry took place in USA with the opening of “The City Hotel” in New York in the year of 1794. And incidentally this was the first building especially constructed for hotel purpose.

Now after the construction of the “City Hotel” a great competition has been observed in different cities of USA and as a result of this, some of the finest hotels of USA were built in this era.

But in 1930, depression in the hotel industry has been noticed. It was felt that the hotel industry would never recover, but the outbreak of the World War brought a tremendous upsurge. Now till 50’s, this prosperity continues and operation started becoming prominent in this period. Later on, it has been felt by the individual owners that the international chain operation would help i.e. expensive technology and marketing thrust what they themselves could not provide. So, there were no way out for the individual owners accept to merge with large international establishments such as Sheraton, Hilton, Holiday Inn etc. theses international chains provided the following to the individual owners –

1.       Partnership

2.       Franchisee

3.       Management Contract

Presently the growth rate of tourism is very fast throughout the world which results the growth of hotel industry in the same rate.

Classification of hotel

October 3, 2013